Output in the country is about 4.3% among the cereals in the country. SORGHUM CROP. Palea is small and thin. The crop is grown in both kharif and Rabi seasons. Well drained light soils are ideal. It is believed to have originated in Africa and Asia. The pH value of soil ranges between 6 to 7.5 and this range is ideal for its cultivation and better growth. Photo about Jowar grain sorghum crop farm. In this process, all plants that bring about competition to the sesame crop should be removed to ensure that the Sesame crops are growing in healthy and free environment. It will grow up to a height of 4 m. Jowar Production in India In India, jowar plant is grown in areas with less than 100 cm rainfall and temperature ranging from 26 deg to 33 deg C. After wheat, the sorghum or jowar is the grain with the highest cultivable land in the country. For successful cultivation of sorghum, the soil must be well drained and free from too much of salts. Climate for Sorghum Cultivation Jowar crops grow well in hot and humid climates. (v) Bed leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum graminicola, which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties, practising crop rotation and improving soil fertility. When in three, one sessile and perfect, the other is pedicilled and staminate; or at times, one staminate and the others perfect. One more advantage of this crop is that it can be grown in both Kharif and Rabi season. The rabi jowar occupies 36-38 per cent of the total area under the crop. Some places also have facilities to produce alcohol from jowar. In comparison to other cereal food items, jowar has a significant value. Different parts of the country have the potential to have this important cereal crop grown, which is also a major product of agriculture in many other countries. STUDENT JOSE MARINO ARAUJO MENDOZA. Medium and deep black soils are very suitable for growing it. Important Producing Areas: The grain is used primarily as human food. (iii) Sorghum midge (Contarinia sorghicola), which can be controlled by burning the panicle residue and chaff obtained after threshing of grain in order to destroy the larvae, by adopting a uniform date of sowing and by applying Endosulfan or Carbaryl or Lindane sprays or dusts. In India, Jowar, known as Cholam in Tamil and Jonna in Telugu, is a staple, especially in the western and southern parts of the country where it is ground into flour and is used to make rotis, bhakri, cheela, dosa etc. Internodes short at the base, longer above; the terminal internode, which ends in the head, is the longest of all. Soils having good water holding capacity, rich in humus are best suited. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Spikelets usually occur in pairs on terminal racemes, except towards the tip, where they may occur in threes. Areas where the consumption of jowar is high, they are grown in many of the agricultural lands. Image of crop, grow, asia - 105501549 Sorghums are generally 95 per cent self-pollinated in the field. They are, however, reported to cross readily with other varieties of sorghum or Sudan grass and Johnson grass. Over the decades, the area under production of jowar and its total output has gone down. Since it can grow in semi arid climates, where other crops do not have a chance of growing, this crop has been grown in these areas. The ideal temperature for growing Jowar is 20-40 degree Celsius. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world belongs to the family Poaceae. With the availability of short-duration varieties of jowar, the practice of multiple cropping is now in vogue even under rain-fed conditions in areas, where the rainfall is assured. In India average size of land holdings was 2.30 hectares in 1950-51 which reduced to 1.52 hectares in 2008-09. The first weeding should be done three to four weeks after planting. Commercial sorghum is the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum (often S. bicolor). Temperature below 15 °C affects crop growth adversely. Equal emphasis is now being laid on hybrid as well as on true-breeding varieties. Foliage leaves vary in different varieties. While weeds are a problem in red soils in kharif, they are not quite serious in black soils. Most millets such as Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Sorghum, etc. Leaf sheaths long with membranous margins. Under the botanical classification wheat crop belongs to genus Triticum. One more advantage of this crop is that it can be grown in both Kharif and Rabi season. Majority of the lands under jowar cultivation is in Peninsular India, with the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh taking up about 78% share of land and 81% of the produce. 2. â¢ Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. moench) was probably initially domesticated in central Africa, in the region of Etiopia and Sudan. The main field should be made to fine tilth by plowing and leveling for in â¦ Next to wheat, the biggest cultivated land in India is utilized to produce jowar.This Indian food crop is cultivated in areas that receive less than 100 cm of rainfall annually. ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. Requiring semi arid climatic conditions, the jowar crop has proved to be a good agricultural practice in the country. The average rainfall in the sorghum belt generally ranges from 40 to 100 cm, which is usually received between the last week of June and the first week of October in most parts of India. Its use in different kinds of commercial purposes is making jowar an important agricultural product in the whole world. Stamens 3 ovary with 2 long styles, each ending in a short, brushy stigma. Food habits cause a drop in jowar cultivation; This story is from December 12, 2018. are grown as Kharif crops i.e. (v) Cut worms (Agrotis ipsilon and A. flammatra), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC on the soil around the plants. Sesame crop for water, light, space and nutrients. Leaf blades very similar to those of maize plant, but more erect. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) Whereas out of the total production of Jowar in the nation, 52% is from Maharashtra. It is a popular Indian crop belonging to the grass family, Gramineae. Copyright 10. During the first ploughing, the soil should be turned, so that there is loose soil up to a depth of about 20-25 cms. MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science with Answers was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. Though it can be grown in a variety of soils including loamy and sandy soils, clayey deep regur and alluvium are the best suited soils for jowar. It is grown as a Rabi crop and in some areas as a kharif crop, from the months of October to February. (vii) Mites (Oligonychus indicus), which can be controlled by dusting sulphur or spraying 0.05% wettable sulphur. Both excessive moisture and prolonged drought are harmful. For cultivation of jowar, the soil requirement in India is usually regur soil, with clayey and alluvium properties. Each lateral may rebranch and branches of the -third order may form, ultimate branchlets bearing one to several paired spikelets. Changes may be made in different areas in the rotations to be followed. In rain-fed areas, 37.5 kg each of nitrogen and phosphate and 35 kg of potash per hectare may be applied as the first dose, at the time of sowing. Most of the improved varieties now available have been developed by pure line selection in local varieties. Stems are erect and solid, 0.9 – 4.50 m high. Forms with long internodes tend to be more glabrous than those with shorter ones. Both excessive moisture and prolonged droughts are harmful for its proper growth. Whereas out of the total production of Jowar in the nation, 52% is from Maharashtra. It is widely cultivated in North and Central America, India, Pakistan, South America, USSR and Europe. A two-year rotation of jowar-cotton is very common during kharif in the Deccan area and also in central plateau, whereas during Rabi, jowar-cotton, jowar-gram or jowar-jowar rotations are common. Sorghum is grown in India in a wide range of soil types. It grows anywhere between 2 8ft tall. This is done manually using hand-hoes where the weeds âIn rabi, jowar used to be a major crop in these parts,â recalled Adilabad Agriculture Officer (Technical) Shiva Kumar. Importance of jowar as a crop is seen in its usage as animal feed and fodder, grown mostly in arid and semi arid climates of the world as well as in India. I uploaded vedio of jowar crops at my own land for 4 acre after 20 years it's one of the model crops every one must watch full vedio and follow it thank you. Small farms produce 41 â¦ Read more "Agricultural Production and Cultivation in Uttarakhand" Regions with high temperature throughout the year and humid conditions are ideally suited for growing Jowar plants. Inflorescence is somewhat compact panicle except in certain types. During the growing season, it requires rainfall, while the maturity of the plants is seen mostly during the north easterly winds and temperature is somewhat higher in winter. Crop is sensitive to low temperature. When the spikelets are paired, one is sessile and perfect, the other pedicelled and staminate. The grain-colour is also variable. Each fertile spikelet has 2 glumes, about equal in length, one outer and another inner; both nerved. Jowar crop has the adaptability for a wide range of soil but grows well in sandy, loamy soil having good drainage. Sorghum was grown in Egypt prior to 2200 B. C. and since then has been an important crop in that country. Seeds are sown with a seed-drill in rows, 30-45 cm apart. It is a short day plant. Lateral branches develop at the nodes. Cultivation. Jowar is par excellence a rainfed crop of dry farming areas where irrigation is not used. The cereal plant of jowar came up in historic times in the present day Ethiopia and east central Africa. The mature grains vary in shape; may be globular, pear-shaped or flattened. Jowar. At maturity, they may be from half to two- thirds the length of the seed; at times, equaling the seed-length. In temperate regions, it is grown during summer, whereas in tropics it can be grown throughout the year. Inter-varietal hybridization has also been resorted to and this has led to the combination of existing yield levels with good forage quality. After a month, nitrogen is applied again at the rate of 37.5 kg per hectare. When jowar is to be cultivated, the soil should be made free from weeds. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India shared by visitors and users like you. sorghum, jowar, seeds, hubli, india, crop, food, plant, natural, botanical, organic Public Domain (iv) Aphids (Aphis sacchari and Rhopalosiphum maidis), which can be controlled by spraying 0.02% Phosphamidon, 0.01% Diazinon, Methyldemeton or Dimethoate. Each hectare should be having about 1,50,000 plants. Harvesting and threshing are done manually. The land is prepared well with ploughs or blade harrows. Besides being a staple diet for the poorer section of the society, it is also used for animal feed and industrial raw materials. (vi) Hairy caterpillars (Amsacta moorei and Estigmene lactinae), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC. cultivation practices of Kharif jowar, whereas land holding, annual income, family type, social participation, source of information and market orientation were having non-significantly relationship with knowledge of the farmers about improved cultivation practices of Kharif In irrigated areas, 57 to 68 kg of nitrogen, 62.5 kg of phosphate and 35 kg potash per hectare may be applied as the first dose, which may be followed by the second dose of nitrogen at the rate of 57 to 68 kg, 30 to 40 days after sowing. Total area of 184 lakh hectares in 1961 has come down to about 92 lakh hectares in 2003. The grain is also malted or popped. After a month, nitrogen is applied again at the rate of 37.5 kg per hectare. (ix) Head smut caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana, which can be controlled by treating the seed with Agrosan GN @ 2 g/kg, practising crop rotation and burning smutted ears. Uploader Agreement. Free PDF Download of CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Multiple Choice Questions with Answers. Commercial Sorghum species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. Content Guidelines 2. (iii) Loose smut caused by Sphacelotheca cruenta, which can be controlled by treating the seed with Agrosan GN before sowing @ 2 g/kg. Lodicules two is short and broad. Agriculture, Millet Crops, Sorghum, Cultivation, How to, Cultivate Sorghum. Karnataka, AndhraPradesh, TamilNadu. A wide range of variability is exhibited by Indian sorghums in respect of duration and grain quality. For grain purposes, 12.5 kg of seed per hectare is necessary. Threshing with the help of a tractor or a power-operated thresher is not very common. Much higher yields of 6,000-7,000 kg have been obtained under optimal conditions. Harrowing should be done 2-3 times and intercrossing ploughing is ideal. The major sorghum-growing states in India are Maharashtra, Karnataka, AP, MP, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Majority of farmers in India belongs to a category of marginal land holders. It is either cooked as rice, or roti or bhakri (unleavened bread) is made of it. barley, getreideanbau, barley cultivation, cereals, field, spike, grain, agriculture, cornfield, hordeum vulgare, hordeum licorice Public Domain (vi) Ascochyta leaf spot caused by Ascochyta sorghina, which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties, practising crop rotation and improving soil fertility. The crop is very important, both as food and fodder, in dry areas. Fertile spikelets relatively large; the shape may be ovate, oval, elliptical or obovate. Withstands hazards of climate better than other kharif crops which is broad, usually pubescent and membranous local! Monsoon or autumn crops cultivated between June to November, as their moisture and rainfall requirements such! 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